The close relationship between the Old Testament and archaeology goes without saying. However, the methodological nuances involved are often either underappreciated or ignored. Using William Dever's idea of convergence, this work attempts to flesh out details on how archaeology and Old Testament studies merge. It examines some of the most important archaeological finds to date and determines that, whether through a broad or narrow convergence, the history of research has shown that these two separate disciplines exhibit a tendency to inform one another. In the case of Old Testament studies, these convergences may even be paradigm-shifting. In every case, the convergences are historically and culturally informative, and therefore illuminate the depth of the biblical text. ""In a masterful elucidation of the complexities surrounding 'biblical archaeology, ' Schreiner invites us on a journey, from pickaxe to publication. Using nine distinct examples as test cases, Schreiner helps the uninitiated not only discover some of the most impressive archaeological finds pertinent to Old Testament studies, but he also permits his readers to eavesdrop on the oft-lengthy process of evaluating its implications for the biblical text."" --Kyle R. Greenwood, Associated Professor of Old Testament, Denver Seminary; Adjunct Associate Professor of Old Testament, Fuller Seminary ""What does a balanced dialogue between biblical studies and archaeology look like? In Pondering the Spade, David Schreiner has provided a fine example of such an interchange. He presents some of the most important archaeological finds that have a bearing on the Old Testament and demonstrates how the two separate disciplines of archaeology and biblical studies can be integrated in their study. This volume will provide excellent supplementary reading for undergraduates and seminary-level courses in archaeology and the Bible."" --Ralph K. Hawkins, Professor of Religion, Averett University ""David Schreiner brings his vast knowledge of ancient Near Eastern history and archaeology to bear in this volume. Pondering the Spade displays great insight into the convergence of archaeology and biblical studies by utilizing informative and accessible examples. This book is a helpful and valuable resource for anyone interested in discovering what archaeology can and cannot do to illuminate the Bible."" --Samuel C. Long, Professor of Old Testament and Ministry, Great Lakes Christian College David B. Schreiner is an assistant professor of Old Testament at Wesley Biblical Seminary.