Why do some conservative / evangelical / fundamentalist Christians (CEF Christians throughout this book) eventually reject Christianity for an agnostic / atheist worldview? To determine why, the author reviewed spiritual biographies and memoirs of former CEF Christians and conducted an extensive online survey open to all agnostics and atheists who formerly were Christian. Nearly 1,600 responded. The author concludes that four primary factors contributed to their rejection of faith: 1) higher criticism of biblical texts; 2) scientific analysis and evolution; 3) the stridency of conservative politics within CEF churches, particularly anti-gay rhetoric; and 4) the inadequacy of various apologetic arguments regarding questions of theodicy (Why suffering? Why famine? Why children with cancer?) and the doctrine of eternal punishment (hellfire). How each of these interplays with one another and contributes to the difficult decision of some CEF Christians to renounce all faith is the subject of this book.