With almost 5000 island and islets, the Mediterranean comprises one of the largest groups of islands in the world. With its wealth of species, high degree of endemism, long history and tolerance of all kinds of disruptions, it is of extremely high value to global biodiversity. However, over the last few decades, major socio-economic changes have increased the negative impact of human activity in the region and today, the islands are extremely vulnerable. This conservation strategy for island plants and habitats is intended to provide one of the basic components of an overall biodiversity conservation programme covering the entire Mediterranean Basin, in order to assist towards sustainable development and to help combat existing or potential threats such as climate change and desertification. It is intended to assist nature conservation managers and decision-makers in building and implementing their conservation programmes.