The world's monuments, art objects and archeology are at increasing risk of deterioration from environmental threats e.g. climate change, air pollution, and tourism. Microorganisms play a central role in these deterioration processes. They grow both on the surface and in the interiors of many materials. Our understanding of the role that the microbial community plays in these activities has improved significantly in recent years and a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of degradation is now possible. In addition, new tools have opened the door to the use of bacteria as protective agents. In this book, contributors have focused on the essential role that biodeterioration plays in both the deterioration and preservation of a wide range of materials. The volume brings together recent research by conservation microbiologists working in diverse environments. In addition, papers are included on the effects of microbial biofilms and climate change on the biodeterioration process. It is hoped that this book will prove helpful to microbiologists, chemists, and other scientists working in the field of conservation. It should also be useful to practicing conservators, and individuals in public policy concerned with the protection of our world's cultural heritage treasures. Contents: SECTION I - THE IMPACT OF THE ENVIRONMENT ON BIODETERIORATION AND PRESERVATION OF HERITAGE MATERIALS The Importance of Microbial Biofilms in Deterioration of Heritage Materials - Marc W. Mittleman Effects of Climate Change on the Biodeterioration of Historic Materials - Peter Brimblecombe SECTION II - BIODETERIORATION AND PRESERVATION PROCESSES Microbial Processes Involved in Deterioration of Paper and Parchment - Flavia Pinzari Biodeterioration of Photographic and Cinematographic Materials: Methods of Investigation - Domenico Pangallo Biodeterioration of easel paintings - An overview - A. Teresa Caldeira, C tia Salvador, T nia Rosado, and Ant nio Candeias Modern materials and contemporary art - Francesca Cappitelli and Federica Villa Use of dyes as a method to control textile biodeterioration - Barbara Blyskal Biodeterioration of paintings in caves, catacombs, and other hypogean sites - Clara Urzi, Laura Bruno, and Filomena De Leo Limestone Biodeterioration: Examples from Portugal - A.C. Pinheiro, N. Mesquita, and Ant nio Portugal Reasons for Removing Biological Materials from Calcareous Stone Monuments - Margaret Breuker and Joannie Bottkol.